Archive Finding Aids

Here are detailed file-by-file descriptions of the contents of specific fonds and/or links to scanned documents.

Left: Jane Richardson and Many Guns. Right: Lucien Hanks and Abe Maslow
Blackfoot reserve, 1938. PA-3385-(244 & 187)

Jane and Lucien Hanks fonds

To view brief history of the family and summary of contents click here.

Table of Contents

Scanned Document indicates that the series includes scanned documents.

Series 1 Scanned Document Jane Richardson’s typed notes and interviews. – 1938
Series 2 Scanned Document Jane Richardson’s draft articles. – 1938 files
Series 3 Scanned Document Lucien Hanks’ field notebooks. – 1938
Series 4 Scanned Document Lucien Hanks’ typed notes and interviews. – 1938
Series 5 Scanned Document Jane Richardson Hanks’ typed notes and interviews. – 1939
Series 6 Scanned Document Lucien Hanks’ field notebooks. – 1939
Series 7 Scanned Document Jane and Lucien Hanks’ field records. – 1941
Series 8 Blackfoot field work – General. – 1938-1952
Series 9 Correspondence with family and Blackfoot. – 1938-1957
Series 10 Scanned Document Photographs and films. – 1938-1941

Inventory

Series 1

Jane Richardson’s typed notes and interviews. – June –September 1938. – 6 cm of textual records (335 pages). – The series consists of typescripts of interviews undertaken by Jane Hanks during her first field season on  the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve in southern Alberta.  Her informants were Sleigh, Many Guns, White Headed Chief, and Mrs. Takes Gun Himself, and the discussions recorded pertained to Blackfoot life, values, warfare, religious societies, and prominent individuals.  Includes her diary of arrival and Sun Dance.

M-8458-1

“Chronological story of our arrival and of the Sundance events”. – June 28-July 7, 1938. – Consists of Jane Richardson’s diary of their arrival at the Blackfoot reserve to undertake field work, and of the Sun Dance being held at that time.  Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-2

Sketches of tipis at Sun Dance. – 1938. – Consists of a sketch of the tipi circle, plus sketches of the designs on specific tipis. Scanned Document View now.

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Interview with Pitoxpikis (Sleigh) via Mary Royal (interpreter). – August 24, 1938. – Pages 1-37.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interview with the 68 year old informant about: lifestyles of a Minipuka; infant medicine gifts; gaining tribal respect; the fine clothing of a Minipuka; marriage life of a Minipuka; how wealth is measured among the Blackfoot; how a Chief builds up a following; Pitoxpikis (the Chief’s) bank; affiliations with other religious societies; Heavy Shield, Spotted Eagle, Sleigh, Brood-Scalplock; weddings, marriage dowries, and feasts.

M-8458-4

Interview with Pitoxipikis (Sleigh) via Mary Royal (interpreter). – August 25 and 30, 1938. – Pages 38-85.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview with the 68 year old informant about: the rise of Pitoxpikis, a great Chief; tales of war deeds; the story of the Minipuka; confrontations regarding wives; liquor-related incidents; trouble and hostility among tribal members; Old Sun, Wolf Child, Running Rabbit, Yellow-Coming-Over-The-Hill, Duck Chief, Old Weasel Calf; Mike Running Wolf, Pretty Young Man, Three Suns, High Eagle, Iron Shield and Old Fox Pilot.

M-8458-5

Interview with Many Guns via Mary Royal (interpreter). – August 31, 1938. – Pages 86-105.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: the story of Crowfoot; information on his family background; how he attained his status as Chief; events leading up to Treaty 7; disputes among the Blackfoot; Lacombe, Old Sun, Sun Walker, White Eagle; contents of a Beaver Bundle; the acquired personal items of a Minipuka; Yellow Horse, James Apikoke; Daniel Axe; Spring Chief; Calf Bull; Iron Shield; Hind Bull; Pito’pi, Weasel Calf, Stablast, and Running Rabbit.

M-8458-6

Interview with White Headed Chief (Spumiapi) via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – September 2, 1938. – Pages 106-143.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: White Headed Chief , his wives and other stories; Utxkuskina (White Elk); tale of White Headed Chief’s return to life; Running Rabbit, Spumiapis Band; Pretty Young Man, Old Sun, Boy Black, Duck Chief, Little Person and Blue Bird.

M-8458-7

Interview with Mrs. Take Gun Himself via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – September 6, 1938. – Pages 144-163.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: story about Kitsitsotsapi – hard up for food; food shortages and alternative food sources; the long search for buffalo herds; Coyote Painted Ears, Eagle Running, Good Wrong Side Robe, Morning Bull, Rump Chief, Bear Sun, Fox Runner; migration patterns of the buffalo; starvation periods; preserving and storage of buffalo meat; and eating habits at different age levels.

M-8458-8

Interview with Crooked Meat Strings via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – September 12, 1938. – Pages 164-200.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview with the 83 year old informant about: story about war expeditions; Cree and Crow relations; various cooking methods; types of clothing for a war party; what equipment to take to war; tales of raiding parties; holy objects and protection charms; story of the great starvation.

M-8458-9

Interview with Many Guns via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – September 16, 1938. – Pages 201-210.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: additional stories to the calendar from 1831 and 1834; Cree and Blackfoot relations; and tales of war adventures.

M-8458-10

Interview with Crooked Meat Strings via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – August 20, 1938. – Pages 211-244. – (Pages 225 to 245 are Crooked Meat Strings, while 211 to 224 may be another informant.  It is not clear.)  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interview with the 83 year old informant about: I’Kinapsi, Pitonista (Eagle Calf), Matsipo’pi (Eats Lots), Ayox’ki.maiki (Beaver Bundle Woman), Utxhui.ku’ka (Yellow Tipi); the story of Spumin.a (Chief Up There); Blackfoot battles with Cree, Bloods, Sarcee; famous Blackfoot medicine people: Apinkim, Mikutsa.pinakui, Utxhu.mistsiyi (Yellow  Travois Woman), Piksiksinoxkyaio (Snake Bear), Ni’ten.a; the gifted powers to cure people; the best times in a Blackfoot woman’s life; notable Okan people: Pinaka.ka, Sis.oya.ki, Misim.iniskim, Apina’kui, En’onista.ka; adultery; and theft.

M-8458-11

Interviews with Crooked Meat Strings via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – August 8-10, 1938. – Pages 245-279.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews with the 83 year old informant about: the origin of the Iniskim (buffalo stones); black sickness and smallpox; whiskey before the Treaty period; the story of Turning Robe; different kinds of Blackfoot medicines; a list of Piskens remembered: Turning Robe, Little Person, Wolf Bedding, Young Scabby Bull, Blackfoot Fire, Mountain Chief, Iron Shield, Luck Man; Maistoxoatisi (War Chief); person at the front line of the Sun Dance circle; the story of Little Chief’s feast; Ninonista and the whiskey trade; Old Sun and Three Suns raiding expeditions; living arrangements in the Blackfoot camp; and preparation for the Papisaxsiman Sun Dance.

M-8458-12

Interviews with Crooked Meat Strings via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – August 11-13, 1938. – Pages 280-310.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews with the 83 year old informant about: Policeman, Catchers, Horns, Natoas, Beaver, Crazy Dogs; the story of the under water people; Different Society and a brief explanation; Horns, Iin.aki (Catchers) Imiteiks, Sikin.aki (Black Catchers); personality traits of the Minipuka and famous Minipuka; the search for buffalo continuing after the Sun Dance breaks camp; Little Person, Old Man Star, Man-Carrying-On-His-Back, Ikuskine, Ninoista, Three Suns; the members of the Pitonista Band.

M-8458-13

Interviews with Crooked Meat Strings via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – August 16-17, 1938. – Pages 311-335. Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews with the 83 year old informant about: tales of the deaths of four Chiefs; stories of Blood and Cree battles; information about Shield with protective powers; death of a Chief; war adventure tales; charms and adornments for war protection; story of how medicine helped a war party; death of Ninonista; burial procedures; and disposition of the deceased’s personal belongings.

Back to Table of Contents.

Series 2

Jane Richardson’s draft articles. – 1938. – 5 cm of textual records. – The series consists of typed manuscripts, some “cut and paste” versions, based on material gathered during her first season of field work on the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve. Her informants were Sleigh, Crooked Meat Strings, Drunken Chief, Many Guns, Mary White Elk, and Mrs. Takes Gun Himself.  Topics include the history of the Skunk Band, Many Swans, Crowfoot, husband and wife relations, the Horn Society, and medicine and curing power.

M-8458-14

History of the Skunk Band. – 1938. – Pages 1-44.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of information from interviews with Sleigh about: history of Pitoxpikis (Sleigh), how the Skunk band was formed; war adventures; alcohol-related stories; the Sun Dance; how a Chief builds up a following; Minipuka, Old Sun, Big Snake, and Tomorrow.

M-8458-15

Agwmaxkayi (Many Swans). – 1938. – Pages 1-17.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of information from interviews with Crooked Meat Strings about these topics: life story of Agwmaxkayi; how peace was made between the Blackfoot and Cree; war stories of the Cree, Crow, Sioux and Snake tribes; and religious societies.

M-8458-16

Music – Spumiapi (White Headed Chief). – 1938. – Pages 1-14. Scanned Document View now.

Consists of a photocopy of descriptions of Siksika songs.  Jane Richardson apparently also did sound recordings of these songs. The original pages (and recordings?) are held by the Archives of Traditional Music at Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

M-8458-17

Life in Crowfoot’s Camp, ca. 1870-1877. – 1938. – Pages 1-24.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of information from interviews with Drunken Chief (who lived in Crowfoot’s tipi as a little boy) and Many Guns about: two versions of Crowfoot’s life; information about his childhood; tales of him as a great warrior; his relationship with White people; signing of Treaty 7 in 1877, and how Crowfoot died.

M-8458-18

Husband and wife relations and Horn Society. – 1938. – Pages 1-86.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of information from interviews with Mrs. Take Gun Himself, Sleigh, Crooked Meat Strings, Mary White Elk and possibly others about: how infidelity was handled; how the Horn Society kept camp discipline; social order and punishment; Black Catchers (police at Sun Dances); how horse stealing was looked upon; rules regarding certain medicines; death of a tribe member and wills; dirty stories and jokes; and these people: Fox Head, Iron Shield, Blue Bird, Little Light, Pitaspito’s (High Eagle), Wolf Person, Crowfoot, Cranky Woman, Weasel Child, One Gun, Mike Running Wolf, Pretty Young Man, Calf Hot Bull, Eagle Calf, Many Swans, Horse Quarrel, Natosapi, Old Sun, He-With-Calf-Robe-On, and Pilot Fox.

M-8458-19

Medicine and curing power. – 1938. – Pages 1-45.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of information from interviews with Crooked Meat Strings, Mary White Elk, Many Guns, and White Headed Chief about:  prominent medicine men; bundle information and owners; Beaver Bundle; wisemen; drowning (pre-Treaty); warrior story about Imitena; Blue Bird; Sarcee; capture of Peigan girl by river people; and saved by a ghost (ghosts aren’t always to be feared).

Series 3

Lucien Hanks’ field notebooks. – July-August 1938. – 7 cm of textual records (9 volumes). – The series consists of handwritten notebooks of interviews undertaken by Lucien Hanks during his first field season on the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve in southern Alberta.  His informants were A Young Man, Francis Black, Martin Breaker, Earl Calf Child, Norman Calf Child, Tony Crane Bear, Duck Chief, Little Back Bone, Little Light, Howard McMaster, Tom McMaster, Old Bull, Sun Calf, Mary White Elk, White Headed Chief, Jack Wolf Leg, and Gordon Yellow Fly.  The information recorded pertained to Blackfoot life, values, warfare, religious societies, and prominent individuals.  Some of this material has been transcribed in Series 4 below.

M-8458-20

Field notes. – July 9-21, 1938. – 1 volume (63 p.). – Consists of observations during a visit to the Blood reserve; diagrams of what appears to be a Sun Dance; and interviews with White Headed Chief, Jack Wolf Leg, Gordon Yellow Fly, Mary White Elk and Duck Chief.  Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-21

Field notes. – July 23-August 4, 1938. – 1 volume (62 p.). – Consists of interviews with Mary White Elk, Little Light and Martin Breaker about medicine pipes, Horn Society and Motoki Society (also spelled Matoki). Scanned Document View now.

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Field notes. – July 27-August 13, 1938. – 1 volume (82 p.). – Consists of interviews with Sun Calf, Gordon Yellow Fly, and Tony Crane Bear.  Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-23

Field notes. – August 4-8, 1938. – 1 volume (107 p.). – Consists of interview with Little Back Bone via Howard McMaster (interpreter); information about medicine pipes, history of the Tobacco Dance; and information about Beaver Bundles.  Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-24

Field notes. – August 4-21, 1938. – 1 volume (30 p.). – Consists of interviews with Howard McMaster and Tom McMaster about Blackfoot words and their definitions, and Blackfoot life before the Whites came.  Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-25

Field notes. – August 9-26, 1938. – 1 volume (88 p.). – Consists of interviews with Jack Wolf Leg, Norman Calf Child, A Young Man, Tony Crane Bear, and Earl Calf Child.  Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-26

Field notes. – August 12-17, 1938. – 1 volume (70 p.). – Consists of interviews with Howard McMaster and Old Bull about the Ghost Dance, Brave Dog, and tobacco planting ceremony. Scanned Document View now.

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Field notes. – August 15, 1938. – 1 volume (25 p.). – Consists of interviews with Duck Chief about farming and ranching on the reserve. Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-28

Field notes. – August 17-23, 1938. – 1 volume (29 p.). – Consists of interviews with Little Light and Francis Black about event and activities at the Sun Dance. Scanned Document View now.

Series 4

Lucien Hanks’ typed notes and interviews. – 1938. – 4 cm of textual records (192 p.). – The series consists of typed notes based on the handwritten field notes in Series 3.  Includes a few notes take by Abraham Maslow, who was in the field with Jane and Lucien.

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Typed notes. – June 30-July 7, 1938. – Pages 1-5. – Consists of part 1 of “White Attitudes toward Indians”.  See pages 9-10 in the file below for part 2.  Scanned Document View now.

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Typed notes and interviews. – 1938. – Pages 1-54.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews about: Crazy Dog Society; Francis Black; White attitudes towards Indians (part 2.  See part 1 in file above); story of Sun Calf by Gordon Yellow Fly; interviews with people at ration house and Tobacco ceremony camp; Howard McMaster; difference between White and Indian religion; diseases; various Blackfoot chiefs; Beaver Bundle Society; vocabulary; explanations of unusual events among the Blackfoot; and the Horn Society by Martin Breaker.

M-8458-31

Typed notes and interviews. – 1938. – Pages 55-91.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews about: Catchers, Dogs, Initaaka; powers of Two Trails; special kinds of Medicine Pipes; story of Big Spotted by Pete Black; Duck Chief and Old Bull via Howard McMaster;  vows to join a holy society; special conditions of Bundle ownership; obligations of Beaver Bundle owners; membership in Tobacco Society; famine days; and Natoas Bundles.

M-8458-32

Typed notes and interviews. – 1938. – Pages 92-138.  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews about: Tony Crane Bear’s life and childhood memories (includes an interview by the Hanks’ colleague, Abraham Maslow, pages 119-127); courtship; comparison of Blackfoot Chiefs; rules of social conduct; Tom McMaster; competitive nature on the reserve; relations between east and west districts of reserve; and the Tobacco Society.

M-8458-33

Typed notes and interviews. – 1938. – Pages 139-188. Scanned Document View now.

Consists of interviews about: how the Tobacco Dance began; Little Back Bone; miscellaneous notes from a variety of informants; Duck Chief (including face painting); and a day at the home of Joe Crowfoot.

Series 5

Jane Richardson Hanks’ typed notes and interviews. – June-August 1939. – 8 cm of textual records. – The series consists of typescripts of interviews undertaken by Jane Hanks during her second field season on  the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve in southern Alberta.  The information was transcribed from her field notebooks, numbered I-VIII.  Her informants were Mrs. Axe, Mrs. Black, Calf Flying, He Will Be Black, Heavy Shield, Many Guns, Pretty Young Man, Spotted Eagle, Mrs. Take Gun Himself, Matthew Tallow, Mary White Elk, Mrs. White Headed Chief, and Wolf Leg. Includes her diary account of their first days in the field.

M-8458-34

Interview with Mrs. White Headed Chief via Ermina [Almena] Big Snake (interpreter). – June 12-15, 1939. – Pages 1-38 (field book I-a).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: genealogy explanations (family members); Ax’sepi.ta or Good Eagle (father); paxsina.mayi and life as a girl; relative of Max Three Suns; techniques of tipi making; and story of the Sun Dance.

M-8458-35

Interview with Heavy Shield via Olive Turning Robe (interpreter). – [ca. June 17-21]-June 24. – Pages 39-72 (field book I-b).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: traits of a Minipuka; tales of war valour; definitions of a Manikapi; Wolf Chief (Akostsikeiks, P.kshya); origin of chieftainship; significance of tipi designs.

M-8458-36

Interview with Calf Flying via Olive Turning Robe (interpreter). – June 24, 1939. – Pages 73-77 (field book I-c).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: Get This War story; significance of colours; and brief family history.

M-8458-37

Interview with Mary White Elk. – June 17, 1939. – Pages 1-14 (field book II-a).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: elopement; divorce; payment of marriage dowry; courting practises; and marriage lifestyle of a Minipuka.

M-8458-38

Interview with Heavy Shield via Joe and Olive Turning Robe (interpreters). – June 20, 1939. – Pages 15-28 (field book II-c). Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: required payments for personal adornments; ownership requirement for a title; transaction process of society / pipe; and various Blackfoot games.

M-8458-39

Interview with Calf Flying via Olive Turning Robe (interpreter). – [ca. June 24-27], 1939. – Pages 1-9 (field book III-a).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: the art of tipi making; horsemanship of the Blackfoot; and horse equipment.

M-8458-40

Interview with Mary White Elk. – June 28, 1939. – Pages 9-15 (field book III-b).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about the Motoki Society: explanation of society membership; construction of a Sun Dance lodge; and face and hand painting patterns.

M-8458-41

Interview with Spotted Eagle via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – June 28, 1939. – Pages 16-21 (field book III-c).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: his earliest childhood memories; children’s games; and his association with the Minipukas.

M-8458-42

Interview with Mary White Elk. – June 29, 1939. – Pages 22-28 (field book III-d).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about the Motoki Society: society attitudes toward the Motokis; requirements to join the society; and patterns and events of the Sun Dance ceremony.

M-8458-43

Interview with Mary White Elk. – [ca. June 29, 1939]. – Pages 29-31 (field book III).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about He Will Be Black’s tipi song: ownership of certain tipi designs; and selected songs / singers to partake in tipi transfer ceremonies.

M-8458-44

Interview with Many Guns via Matthew Tallow (interpreter). – June 30, 1939. – Pages 32-39 (field book III-e).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: preparation for a Sun Dance; privileged few to participate in a Sun Dance; various Sun Dance events; and information on the centre pole.

M-8458-45

Records at the Agency office re treaty payments. – [ca. July] 1939. – pages 39-47 (field book III-f).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of typed information from treaty payment books for 1879-1881.

M-8458-46

Interview with Mrs. Axe via Mary White Elk (interpreter). – July 24, 1939. – Pages 48-70 (field book III-g).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: her family history; story of the Peigan tribe; how H. got his snake powers; and personal disagreements / feuds among the Blackfoot.

M-8458-47

Interview with Mary White Elk. – August 11-14, 1939. – Pages 1-19 (field book VII).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: code of ethics for holy husband / wife; various medicines; a brief family history; and women Minipukas.

M-8458-48

Jane Hanks’ diary. – May 28-June 5, 1939. – Pages 1-15 (field book VIII). Scanned Document View now.

Consists of her account of: their Gleichen and Calgary Stampede adventures; day at the Tobacco Dance camp; ration day events; and Sun Dance activities.

M-8458-49

Interview with Wolf Leg via Olive Turning Robe (interpreter). – July 8, 1939. – Pages 15-26 (field book VIII).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: his family history; and various Blackfoot clan members.

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Interview with Matthew Tallow. – July 1, 1939. – Pages 27-31 (field book VIII).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of a list of tipis and band groupings at the Sun Dance [diagram missing].

M-8458-51

Interview with Mrs. Take Gun Himself via Olive Turning Robe (interpreter). – [ca. July 1939]. – Pages 32-40 (field book VIII).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: her childhood memories; Blackfoot fighting the Cree; her adult life experiences; and the Catholic Priest (tale of Three Persons told by Mary White Elk).

M-8458-52

Interview with Mrs. Black. – [ca. July 1939). – Pages 41-46 (field book VIII).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: the story of Crowfoot; Crowfoot and his associates; her marriage; and the Motoki Bundle (also spelled Matoki).

M-8458-53

Interview with Pretty Young Man via Mrs. Yellow Horse (daughter and interpreter). – July 10, 1939. – Pages 46-71 (field books VIII and IV).  Scanned Document View now.

Consists of an interview about: his family history; and Tak.a (groupings of people who are enemies or friends); facts about the Minipuka; facts about the Manikapis; and marriages.

Series 6

Lucien Hanks’ field notebooks. – May-August 1939. – 7 cm of textual records (9 volumes). – The series consists of handwritten notebooks of interviews undertaken by Lucien Hanks during his first field season on the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve in southern Alberta.  His informants provided information pertaining Blackfoot life, values, warfare, religious societies, and prominent individuals.

M-8458-54

Field notes. – May 29-June 21, 1939. – 1 volume (133 p.). – Consists of interviews with Many Guns, White Headed Chief, Mary White Elk, and Emil Medicine Traveller.  Primarily about the Tobacco Dance.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-55

Field notes. – June 20-July 9, 1939. – 1 volume (148 p.). – Consists of interviews with Little Light, One Gun, Many Bears, Paul Walker, Turned Up Nose, Linden Many Bears, Paul Wolf Collar, Mary White Elk, Phillip Many Guns, and Matthew Tallow.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-56

Field notes. – July 9-25, 1939. – 1 volume (159 p.). – Consists of interviews with Gooderham; Phillip Many Guns, Buck Running Rabbit, Earl Calf Child, Albert Cutter, Kippie James, Mrs. Black, Jim Black, Ponoka, and Linden Many Bears.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-57

Field notes. – July 17-29, 1939. – 1 volume (145 p.). – Consists of interviews with Buck Running Rabbit, Albert Cutter, One Gun, Pretty Young Man, Jim Black and Mrs. Black.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-58

Field notes. – July 28-August 3, 1939. – 1 volume (159 p.). – Consists of interviews with Jim Black and Mrs. Black, Martin Breaker, Paul Little Walker, Pitoxpikis (Sleigh), Mrs. Low Horn, and Paul Wolf Collar.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-59

Field notes. – August 4-5, 1939. – 1 volume (118 p.). – Consists of interviews with Pitoxpikis (Sleigh), Little Light, Jack Kipp, and Paul Little Walker.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-60

Field notes. – August 8, 1939. – 1 volume (62 p.). – Consists of an interview with White Headed Chief regarding his life and the Tobacco Dance. Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-61

Field notes. – August 1-14, 1939. – 1 volume (68 p.). – Consists of interviews with Francis Black, Imitena, Benedict Sitting Eagle, Mrs. George Many Shots, and Mrs. Duck Chief. Scanned Document View now.

M-8458-62

Field notes. – June 21-July 26, 1939. – 1 volume (93 p.). – Consists of interviews with Linden Many Bears and Paul Little Walker. Scanned Document View now.

M-4387 Photocopies of typed notes. – 39 pages. – Consists of notes related primarily to Crowfoot and Duck Chief. The location of the originals is unknown.

Series 7

Jane and Lucien Hanks’ field records. – June-July 1941. – 4 cm of textual records. – The series consists of Lucien Hanks’ handwritten field notebooks, which include interviews with informants, as well as a few personal diary entries.  The series also consists of Jane Hanks’ typed notes and interviews from her 1941 field work.

M-8458-63

Lucien Hanks’ field notebook. – June 11-26, 1941. – 1 volume (136 p.). – Consists of Lucien Hanks’ diary entries, plus interviews with Little Light, Buck Running Rabbit, Teddy Yellow Fly, Lawrence Night Chief, Peanuts, and Cyril [Old Woman].  Includes some transcripts.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-64

Lucien Hanks’ field notebook. – June 17-July 13, 1941. – 1 volume (145 p.). – Consists of interviews with George Crow Chief, Tom McMaster, Peanuts, Teddy Yellow Fly, Francis Black, Little Light, Joe White Fat, Night Chief, Storm Sun Shoe, Duck Chief, and Joe Crowfoot.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-65

Lucien Hanks’ field notebook. – June 27-July 4, 1941. – 1 volume (120 p.). – Consists of interviews with Hind Bull, Buck Running Rabbit, Jim Drunken Chief, Ben Calf Robe, Peanuts, and Gooderham.  Includes a few of Lucien Hanks’ diary entries.  Includes some transcripts.

Scanned Document View part 1.
Scanned Document View part 2.

M-8458-66

Jane Hanks' typed notes and interviews . – June 12- 17, 1941. – Pages 1-68. –   Consists of diary entries and interviews with Mary White Elk, He Will Be Black, and Crooked Meat Strings.  Scanned Document View now.

Series 8

Blackfoot field work – General. – 1938-1952. – 1 cm of textual records. – The series consists of Lucien’s background research into existing literature on  the Blackfoot; lists of question, informants and other things to remember during field work; miscellaneous correspondence about field work; and newspaper clippings.

M-8458-67

Lucien Hanks’ background research. – [ca. 1940]. – 1 volume. – Consists transcribed notes from published sources relating to his Blackfoot research.

M-8458-68

Field work lists. – 1938-1941. – Consists of lists of questions to be answered; gifts to bring; informants who were interviewed; sequence of work; and references to deviance.

M-8458-69a

Newspaper clippings. – 1938-1958. – Consists of an article about Lucien Hanks’ work in Alberta (1938); article written by Chief Yellow Fly about burning effigies of Hitler and Mussolini at the Blackfoot Sun Dance (ca. 1942-1945); a photo essay on the Shoshone Sun Dance (1941); and articles about conditions on the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve (1958).

M-8458-69b Articles and newspaper clippings. – 1938-1950s. -- Consists of copies of Lucien Hanks' articles, including "Report to SSRC" (fall 1938); "Psychopathology on the Plains: A Case Study of a Blackfoot Psychotic" (1939); "Return to the Blackfoot" (1951); "Two Concepts of Welfare in the Granting of Aid" (n.d.); and "The Adulthood of the Favored Child among the Northen Blackfoot" (n.d.). Also includes "Northern Blackfoot Culture and Personality" by A.H. Maslow and John J. Honigmann" (1945).

Series 9

Correspondence with family and Blackfoot. – 1938-1957. – 14 cm of textual records. – The series consists of letters written by Jane and Lucien (“June” for Junior) to their families during the 1938 and 1939 field seasons on the Blackfoot reserve.  Also consists of letters sent to Lucien and Jane Hanks from friends on the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve.  Some is addressed to their Blackfoot names Bird Chief (Lucien) and Aisomyaki (Jane). Includes extensive correspondence with Little Light (Lucien’s adoptive father) and Thomas McMaster, and a small amount of correspondence with professional colleagues about their work.

M-8458-70 Correspondence with family. – 1938. – 8 letters. – Consists of photocopies of letters written to the Hanks and Richardson families by “June” and Jane.  Includes newspaper clippings and a program for the Calgary Stampede. – The originals are held by Jane Hanks.
M-8458-71

Correspondence with family. – 1939. – 14 letters. – Consists of one original and 13 photocopied letters written to the Hanks and Richardson families by “June” and Jane.  Letter #5 is missing. – The originals are held by Jane Hanks.

M-8458-72

Correspondence with regarding the Hanks’ Blackfoot work. – 1940-1952. – Consists of a letter from Esther Goldfrank (1940) and a copy of an article she wrote about the Blackfoot (1952); letter from Fred Eggan who reviewed Jane’s “Northern Blackfoot Kinship” manuscript (ca. 1945); and letter from George Gooderham thanking the Hanks for the copy of “Tribe Under Trust” (1950).

M-8458-73

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1939. – 4 letters. – Consists of letters from Spumyapi (White Headed Chief; spelled Spumiapi in the field notes above), and Howard McMaster, Billy Mayfield.  Includes a love letter between two unidentified Blackfoot during Calgary Stampede.

M-8458-74

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1940. – 5 letters. – Consists of letters from Mrs. White Headed Chief, Howard McMaster, Thomas Healey, and Mrs. Albert Big Snake (Almena).

M-8458-75

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1941. – 17 letters. – Consists of letters from Thomas McMaster, Little Light, Billy Mayfield, Pretty Young Man, Annie Royal (McGuire), Mrs. McMaster, Howard McMaster, Many Guns, Mary R.M., Susie O. Runner, Florence Calf Child, and Water Chief.

M-8458-76

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1942. – 18 letters. – Consists of letters from Thomas McMaster, Thomas Healey, Mrs. Many Guns, Mrs. White Headed Chief, Florence Calf Child, E. Calf Child, Albert McMaster, Howard McMaster, Almena Big Snake, Little Light, He Will Be Black, and Paul Good Eagle.

M-8458-77

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1943. – 12 letters. – Consists of letters from Ralph Calf Child, Mrs. White Headed Chief, Jane Drunken Chief, Thomas McMaster, Howard McMaster, and Little Light.

M-8458-78

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1944. – 8 letters. – Consists of letters from Simon and Almena Big Snake, and Thomas McMaster.

M-8458-79 Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1946. – 9 letters. – Consists of letters from Little Light, Thomas McMaster, E. Calf Child, and Howard McMaster.
M-8458-80 Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1947-1949. – 11 letters. – Consists of letters from One Gun, Tony Cranebear, Little Light, Howard McMaster, Mrs. Lawrence Night Chief, Paul W. Fox, Henry Low Horn, and Norman Calf Child.
M-8458-81

Correspondence with Blackfoot. – 1950-1957. – 13 letters. – Consists of letters from (Peter) Little Light to his son Lucien.

Series 10

Photographs and films. – 1938-1941. – 366 photographs. – 5 film reels. – 2 audio cassettes. – 0.5 cm of textual records. – The series consists of photographs and films taken by Jane and Lucien Hanks while undertaking their research on the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve.  Includes views of members of the tribe, the Sun Dance, Horn Society, tipis, Blackfoot hospital, Calgary Stampede Indian Village, and various events and activities.  The images appear to date primarily from 1938 and 1939, but may include some 1941 views.  Includes Jane Hanks’ recorded commentary about many of the images, and a transcript of this commentary.

Many of the photographs have been scanned. Scanned Document View now.

PA-3385

Jane Hanks photograph commentary (recorded). –  February 3, 1994. – 2 audio cassettes. – Consists of comments made by Jane Hanks while reviewing Blackfoot photographs taken in 1938.  She discusses photographs PA-3385-(1-95), PA-3385-(125-219).  Stored with the photographs.

PA-3385

Jane Hanks’ photograph commentary (transcribed). – 1996. – Consists of a transcript prepared by Glenbow Archives from the audio cassettes above.  Stored with the photographs.

PA-3385-(1-95)

Sun Dance gathering. – 1938. – 95 photographs. – Consists of views of the Sun Dance encampment with its circle of tipis; tipis being put up; tripods of bundles in the sun; the Sun Dance lodge being constructed; Horn Society members; and individuals including Joe Crowfoot, One Gun, White Headed Chief (Spumiapi), and Old Bull.

PA-3385-(96-124) Calgary Stampede Indian Village. – 1938. – 29 photographs. – Consists of views of tipis, individuals and events at the Calgary Exhibition and Stampede.
PA-3385-(125-145)

Sun Dance gathering. – 1938. – 21 photographs. – Consists of views taken during the Sun Dance events, including Mrs. Water Chief, the Sun Dance Vower; and individuals including Water Chief, White Headed Chief (Spumiapi), and Joe Crowfoot.  Included a view of George Gooderham, the Indian Agent.

PA-3385-(146-187)

Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve. – 1938. – 42 photographs. – Consists of views of individuals including Howard McMaster, Ernest Medicine Traveller, Herbert Lawrence, Gordie Yellow Fly, Billy and Maggie Mayfield, Joe Crowfoot, Louise Black, and Old Bull; tuberculosis hospital patients and staff; hockey team; town of Gleichen; and possibly Tobacco Dance events.  Includes views of Jane Richardson Hanks, Lucien Hanks, and Abraham Maslow.

PA-3385-(188-219)

Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve. – 1938 or 1939. – 32 photographs. – Consists of views of Blackfoot individuals including Mary White Elk, Boy Chief, Duck Chief, Crooked Meat Strings and Little Light; tuberculosis hospital patients and staff; a typical reserve house; and the town of Gleichen.  Some of the views were likely taken during the 1939 Tobacco Dance.

PA-3385-(220-288)

Blackfoot individuals and Royal visit. – 1938-1939. – 69 photographs. – Consists of views of White Headed Chief, Mrs. White Headed Chief, Wolf Child (Peanuts), Crooked Meat Strings, Simon and Almena Big Snake, Howard McMaster, Mary White Elk, Calf Child, One Gun, Pretty Young Man, Many Guns, Martin Breaker, Skunk, Duck Chief, Olive Olds and many others; the 1939 visit of King George; Stampede parade; .  Includes views of Lucien Hanks and Jane Richardson Hanks on the reserve.

PA-3385-(289-366) Sun Dance encampment. – 1938 or 1939. – 78 photographs. – Consists of views of the Sun Dance encampment from a distance; Motoki lodge being constructed; the branch-covered Sun Dance lodge; members of the tribe; Horn Society members; and individuals including Little Light, Duck Chief, Teddy Yellow Fly, George Gooderham (Indian Agent), Heavy Shield, and Olive Turning Robe.
F-172-(1-5)

Films of the Blackfoot (Siksika) reserve. – 1938-1941. – 5 film reels. – Consists of film footage taken by the Hanks of the reserve, people, traditional costumes, sign language, tipis, social activities, Sun Dance, Tobacco Dance, and Horn Society. – The original films were donated to the Library and Archives of Canada by the Hanks.  Glenbow’s copies are available for reference purposes. Please contact LAC regarding reproductions, citing film number 325926.

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