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Glossaries have been created to provide the definition for words
specific to each theme area. It is suggested that students review
the glossaries before they examine a specific theme area. For example,
the Ranching Glossary contains many terms such as "greenhorn,"
"heifer," or "wrangler," that only a rancher
or cowboy might know.
Acclamation: An election won without a vote, as only one
person desired the position.
Attorney-General: Chief law officer of the Alberta Government.
Acts as the guardian of the rule of law, which protects both individuals
and society and is in charge of criminal prosecution, legislation,
civil litigation, and administration of the courts.
British North America Act (BNA Act): Now called the Constitution
Act of 1867, it was an act of the British Parliament that created
the Dominion of Canada and set out its constitution. The BNA Act
laid out the structure of the government of Canada and listed the
division of powers between the federal government and the provincial
Boxcar: A fully enclosed railroad car, typically having
sliding side doors, used to transport freight.
Bushel: A unit of volume or capacity in the British Imperial
System, used in dry and liquid measure and equal to 36.37 liters.
Colonization: The act or process of politically controlling
a distant region or country.
Convener: The member of a group or organization whose duty
it is to assemble meetings.
Deficit: The result when the accumulated payments of a government
exceed its earnings, usually over the period of one year.
Dominion: A self-governing nation within the British Commonwealth.
Dower: A widow's portion of her husband's assets that were
acquired during the course of their marriage.
Economics: The science that deals with the production, distribution,
and consumption of goods and services.
Elevator (grain): A small building equipped with devices
for lifting and releasing grain for transportation purposes.
Entrepreneur: A person who organizes, operates, and assumes
the risk for a business venture.
Evangelical: Anything from or relating to a Christian church.
Expansionism: The practice or policy by a nation of territorial
or economic expansion.
Famous 5: A group of five women, Henrietta Muir Edwards,
Nellie McClung, Emily Murphy, Irene Parlby, and Louise McKinney,
who secured the right for women to be legally declared "persons"
Foreclosure: The legal proceedings initiated by the person
or group who is owed money to repossess the collateral, such as
the land or house, for a loan that has not been paid.
Government: The agency or organization that exercises authority
in a country, creating and enforcing laws that govern individual
and group behavior.
Graft: To gain from the unscrupulous use of one's position
or power, thereby deriving monetary gain or other advantages.
Great Depression: Term referring to the period in Canada
from 1929 until 1939. Western Canada's economy had massive unemployment,
breadlines, relief camps, protest marches, and dust storms. The
beginning of the Second World War in 1939 brought Canada out of
the Great Depression.
House of Commons: Along with the Senate, the House of Commons
is one of the two parliamentary houses in the federal government.
The House of Commons is the major law-making body in Parliament.
In the Commons, elected Members of Parliament (MPs) devote most
of their time to debating and voting on bills.
Immigrate: To enter and settle in a country that a person
was not born in.
Jurisdiction: The right and power to interpret and apply
the law in a certain area.
Kainai: The Kainai/Blood are one member tribe of the Blackfoot
Confederacy, an alliance that also includes the Siksika (Blackfoot),
the Piikani (Peigan), and the Blackfeet.
Legislation: The act or process of making or creating laws
by an official government body.
Libel: A false publication in writing that damages another
Macdonald, John A (1815O1891): The first Prime Minister
of Canada and one of the "Fathers of Confederation. Served
as Prime Minister from 1867-1873 and 1878-1891.
Maverick: There are two main definitions.
1. Originally, it referred to cattle that have not been branded
yet, usually meaning a calf that has become separated from its
mother. They were usually considered the property of the first
person to brand them.
2. Today, it refers to a person who is independent in thought
and deed, or who refuses to "go along with the group."
National policy: A wide-ranging course of action used to
guide the federal government in pursuing its goals.
Natural Resources: Resources that are supplied in nature,
such as trees, minerals, and oil.
Official Opposition: The role of the Official Opposition
is to give voters an alternative viewpoint in elections and debates.
It is the party with the second largest membership in the House
of Commons. They suggest changes to government legislation or provide
proposals for alternative legislation.
Politician: One who is skilled or involved in the administration
Politics: The art or science of government of a political
entity, such as a nation, and the administration and control of
its internal and external affairs.
Populist reform: In order to make government more responsive
to the people, "populists" propose the use of referendums,
or a public vote, on certain issues rather than leaving all decisions
to be made by their representatives (Members of Parliament).
Premier: The chief elected official of a Canadian province.
Prohibition: The forbidding by law of the manufacture, transportation,
sale, and possession of alcoholic beverages.
Protectionism: When a nation protects its own companies
and firms by limiting the importation of foreign goods and services.
Usually done through tariffs or quotas.
Reform Party: The Reform party was created in 1987 and resembled
the Social Credit party. It obtained its strongest support in Alberta
and attracted socially conservative, English-speaking voters in
Western Canada, who felt that Canadian society had disastrously
retreated from desirable traditional Christian values.
Senate: Along with the Senate, the House of Commons is one
of the two parliamentary houses in the federal government. The Senate
studies, amends, and then either rejects or approves bills passed
by the House of Commons. It can also introduce its own bills, except
those to spend public money or impose taxes. No bill can become
law until it has been passed by the Senate. The Governor General,
upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister, appoints senators.
Social commentary: The act of sharing one's opinion with
the idea of bringing a change in society or government. It is usually
done informing the general public of a given problem and attempting
to persuade others through the media.
Social Credit Party: A Canadian political party originally
based on the Social Credit theory of Major C.H. Douglas. It reached
its height of popularity in the 1930s, as a result of the Great
Depression. This theory argued that all citizens have a claim to
part of the wealth that we have jointly produced and financial institutions
should be put under social control.
Social justice: The fair distribution of advantages, assets,
and benefits among all members of a society.
Suffrage: The right or privilege of voting.
Tariff: A tax levied by a government on imported or exported
goods to lessen competition with their own country's products.
Territory: A subdivision of Canada that is not a province
and is administered by an elected legislature.
Think Tank: A group or an institution organized for intensive
research and solving of problems.
Totalitarian: A type of government that has total control
over all aspects of its citizen's lives.
The United Farmers of Alberta (UFA): The UFA was founded
in 1909 as a lobby organization representing the interests of farmers.
Under Herbert Greenfield, they formed the Alberta provincial government
from 1921 to 1935. Its goal is to educate farmers in collective
action and provide them with knowledge of their legal and political
Western alienation: The perception that there is persistent
social, political, and economic inequality based upon regions within
Canada. It is the belief that the interests of the western provinces
are ignored in favour of the interests of Ontario and Quebec.